De Bruijn and Van den Broeck (2011) have developed a framework to evaluate the effectiveness of existing alcohol marketing regulations and have used this to analyse which European countries have the best and worst regulations.
Key points of the fact sheet are:• Effective alcohol marketing regulations are an essential control measure in a comprehensive alcohol policy that aims to decrease alcohol-related harm and to protect young people. • Effective alcohol marketing regulations are recommended to restrict the volume of alcohol marketing practices to protect harmful exposure to alcohol advertising among young people. • When alcohol marketing practices are allowed, also content restrictions are recommended to allow alcohol advertisements that contain solely product information. • Volume and content restrictions are only effective when a strong regulatory system supports the enforcement of the regulation. • Alcohol marketing regulations in France and Norway can be seen as best practices in Europe: here strong volume or content restrictions go together with a strong supportive regulation system. • Legislation is significantly more effective than self-regulation systems in ensuring the combination between strong restrictions and an effective supporting system.
While there has been a multitude of research on the various ways and media of alcohol marketing and their effects on young people, research on alcohol marketing in the cinema has only recently taken off. This fact sheet covers the prevalence, range and effects of alcohol marketing in the cinema as proven in recent studies in the Netherlands and the UK.
The impact of alcohol advertisement in cinemas should not be neglected. As a medium for alcohol advertising, cinemas should be taken into account in the discussion of restricting or banning alcohol marketing. The full fact sheet can be downloaded and read here
Alcohol use among children and adolescents is of particular concern to policy makers, since these youngsters are facing disproportional physical and social alcohol related harm (Boelema et al 2009). There is increasing evidence that exposure to media and alcohol marketing is associated with the likelihood that adolescents will start to drink alcohol, and with increased drinking amongst those who already drink alcohol (Anderson et al 2009). This association is not found for the population as a whole.
This fact sheet describes reasons, found in the literature, why adolescents are in particular vulnerable to exposure to the influence of alcohol advertising and promotion.
Adolescent drinking is associated with ill health, premature death, unplanned pregnancy, violence and injury among other social and physical harms. Early onset drinking is also associated with alcohol dependence and the use of other drugs an association not strongly linked to genetics, but rather environmental factors (de Bruijn and Johansen 2009). Recent evidence shows alcohol marketing as one environmental factor linked to beginning to drink and the volume and pattern of young people’s drinking.
This fact sheet was prepared by Rebecca Gordon and Peter Anderson on behalf of the German Centre for Addiction Issues (DHS).
Alcohol is a sedative, while ingredients of energy drinks such as caffeine, guarana and taurine have a stimulant effect. The effects of alcohol are masked which may lead to excessive alcohol consumption (O’Brien, 2008). Research conducted in the United States revealed that adolescents who regularly drink alcohol mixed with energy drinks more often binge drink (more than 5 drinks in a short period of time) and are drunk twice as often (O’Brien, 2008; Ferreira, 2006). Also other alcohol-related consequences are more prevalent. There is a doubled risk of being taken advantage of sexually, riding with an intoxicated driver, being physically hurt or injured, and the need for medical treatment.
This report offers a first exploration of the availability of these drinks in Europe.