Background: Although alcohol consumption increases breast cancer risk, some alcohol products include breast cancer awareness marketing (i.e., pink ribbons) on alcohol containers, which poses a contradiction. Some researchers and advocacy groups have called for restrictions on use of the pink ribbon and other breast cancer awareness marketing on alcohol products. This exploratory study aimed to describe individual and behavioral correlates (age, knowledge, attitudes, purchase intention) of reported support for potential policy restrictions of pink ribbon labeling on alcohol containers.
Methods: The study sample was drawn from the Prolific crowd-sourced research platform in September 2020. Eligible participants included U.S. women aged 21+ years. The primary outcome was policy position for restrictions on pink ribbon labeling on alcohol containers, coded as support, neutral, or oppose. The association between pink ribbon labeling attitudes and support or opposition (vs neutral) was examined using multinomial logistic regression. Covariates were 1) knowledge of the alcohol-cancer link; 2) likelihood of buying an alcohol product with pink ribbon labeling; and 3) age. Models were used to calculate adjusted predicted probabilities for support, oppose, and neutral.
Results: The analytic sample included 511 women. Overall, 46% of women opposed, 34% were neutral, and 20% supported restricting pink ribbon labeling on alcohol containers. Controlling for all covariates, women who reported that wine increases cancer risk had the highest probability of opposing restrictions on pink ribbon labeling (56.4% [95%CI: 48.1%-64.8%]). Women who reported wine had no effect on cancer risk had the highest probability of being neutral about restrictions on pink ribbon labeling (45.5% [95% CI: 35.7%-55.3%]). Across levels of knowledge about the alcohol-cancer risk association, as favorable attitudes toward pink ribbon labeling increased, the probability of policy opposition increased and the probability of being policy neutral decreased.
Conclusion: Findings from this study suggest women’s favorable attitudes toward pink ribbon labeling on alcohol containers are a stronger predictor of support or opposition for restrictions on pink ribbon labeling than knowledge of the alcohol-cancer link. Future research could examine whether pink ribbon labeling may interact with potential or current health warnings on alcohol containers.
Keywords: Alcohol; Attitudes; Breast cancer; Cause marketing; Policy; Public opinion.
Copyright © 2023. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Conflict of interest statement
Declarations of Interest The authors declare that they have no known competing financial interests or personal relationships that could have appeared to influence the work reported in this paper.
The power of pink: cause-related marketing and the impact on breast cancer.J Am Coll Radiol. 2009 Jan;6(1):26-32. doi: 10.1016/j.jacr.2008.07.010.PMID: 19111268
Red flags on pinkwashed drinks: contradictions and dangers in marketing alcohol to prevent cancer.Addiction. 2015 Oct;110(10):1541-8. doi: 10.1111/add.13035.PMID: 26350708
Public support for alcohol policies associated with knowledge of cancer risk.Int J Drug Policy. 2015 Apr;26(4):371-9. doi: 10.1016/j.drugpo.2014.08.006. Epub 2014 Aug 21.PMID: 25217801
Restricting or banning alcohol advertising to reduce alcohol consumption in adults and adolescents.Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014 Nov 4;2014(11):CD010704. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD010704.pub2.PMID: 25369459 Free PMC article. Review.
Interventions for raising breast cancer awareness in women.Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017 Feb 10;2(2):CD011396. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD011396.pub2.PMID: 28185268 Free PMC article. Review.
- Link to original article