Alcohol marketing in the Americas and Spain during the FIFA World Cup Tournament;
Jonathan K. Noël, Thomas Babor, Katherina Robaina, Melissa Feulnes, Alan Vendrame & Maristela Monteiro
(2016); In : Addiction, 112 (Suppl. 1), 64-73
Background and aims To identify the nature of visual alcohol references in alcohol advertisements during televised broadcasts of the 2014 FIFA World Cup Tournament matches and to evaluate cross-national differences according to alcohol marketing policy restrictiveness. Design Content analysis using the Delphi method and identification of in-game sponsorships. Setting Television broadcasts of the 2014 FIFA World Cup in Argentina, Brazil, Canada, Finland, France, Mexico, Spain and the United States. Cases Eighty-seven alcohol advertisements; 20 matches. Measurements Quantitative rating scales, combined with the Delphi rating technique, were used to determine compli- ance of the alcohol advertisements with the International Alliance for Responsible Drinking’s (IARD) Guiding Principles. Recordings of five matches from four countries were also used to identify the number of in- and out-of-game alcohol brand appearances. Findings A total of 86.2% of all unique alcohol advertisements contained at least one violation of IARD’s Guiding Principles, with violation rates ranging from 72.7% (Mexico) to 100% (Brazil). Countries with the least restrictive marketing policies had a higher prevalence of violations in guidelines designed to protect minors. There were 2.76 in-game alcohol brand appearances and 0.83 out-of-game alcohol brand appearances per minute. Brand appearances did not differ across countries or according to a country’s marketing policy restrictiveness. Conclusions Self-regulation and statutory policies were ineffective at limiting alcohol advertising during the 2014 FIFAWorld Cup Tournament television broadcasts. Most advertisements contained content that violated the self-regulation codes, and there were high levels of within- broadcast brand appearances.