Cross-sectional studies

Cross-sectional studies examine a sample at one point in time. Cross-sectional surveys measure for example the association between exposure to alcohol advertising and drinking behaviour, but do not show whether the exposure preceded the outcome [1]. Due to the single measurement moment cross-sectional studies are vulnerable to reverse causality in which we cannot rule out that drinkers are predisposed to view and remember alcohol advertisements, rather than alcohol advertisements stimulate alcohol consumption in young people.

Summaries of articles:

References:
[1] Smith & Foxcroft (2007). The effect of alcohol advertising and marketing in drinking behaviour in young people: A systematic review. Derived at December 14, from: AERC