The more brand-specific alcohol advertising that young drinkers are exposed to, the higher their consumption of those brands, according to a new study led by researchers from the School of Public Health and School of Medicine. The study, in the Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, found an association between past-year exposure to advertising, measured in what the researchers called “adstock” units, and consumption of the brands advertised. Every 100 adstock-unit increase in exposure was associated with an increase of six drinks consumed during the past 30 days, while exposures of 300 or more adstock units were associated with an increase of 55.7 drinks. The study examined links between exposure to brand-specific TV advertising and drinking among a national sample of more than 1,000 youths, ages 13 to 20, who reported drinking in the past 30 days. Participants were surveyed about their past-month viewership of the 20 most popular non-sports shows that contained alcohol ads. They also were asked about their past-month consumption of the 61 brands in those advertisements. The study estimated that the advertised brands accounted for almost 47 percent of all alcohol consumed by the young drinkers, and that there was a “dose-response” relationship between exposure to ads and drinking levels. “The exposure-consumption relationship was particularly strong among those with 300 or more adstock units of exposure,” the researchers said. “There were fewer youth with these higher levels of advertising exposure, but they consumed a disproportionately large amount of the alcohol consumed by the entire youth sample.” The research team noted that while alcohol advertising has been linked with youths’ brand choices in past studies, alcohol marketing remains self-regulated by the industry. Manufacturers have guidelines saying that ads should be limited to media that have a mostly adult audience. But alcohol companies don’t always follow their own guidelines, and there is no penalty for violations. The current study confirms that under-21 audiences are seeing plenty of alcohol ads, the authors said. “Although previous studies have shown that exposure to advertising is related to which brands underage youths drink, few studies have assessed whether the quantity of exposure is associated with the total quantity of alcohol consumed by these youths,” said lead author Timothy Naimi, associate professor of community health sciences and of medicine at BUSM, and a physician at Boston Medical Center. Michael Siegel, the study’s co-principal investigator and professor of community health sciences, said the study suggests that advertising influences “how much kids drink, not just what they drink. “This has important implications because we know that the amount of alcohol consumption is associated with increased risks of harm, including motor vehicle fatalities, suicide and violence. We believe these findings should prompt a reevaluation of the industry’s self-regulatory framework, in order to reduce advertising exposure among underage youth,” he said. Among study participants, the median number of drinks consumed in the past 30 days was five. The average number of drinks consumed increased from 14 to 33 per month as advertising exposure increased from zero to 300 adstock units. For participants exposed to 300 or more adstock units, per-person consumption skyrocketed from 33 drinks to more than 200 drinks consumed in the past 30 days. The authors said they hoped the study would prompt research that further examines the exposure-consumption relationship, especially among youths who have high exposure to ads on TV and in other media. Naimi said that, for parents, the findings offer extra motivation to curb kids’ time in front of the TV, particularly for programming with alcohol advertising. In general, experts recommend that children and teenagers spend a limited amount of time each day in front of a “screen”—whether a TV, computer, or phone. “This could be yet another reason to limit screen time,” Naimi said. Co-authors on the study were: William DeJong, professor of community health sciences; David Jernigan of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health; and Craig Ross of Fiorente Media, Inc., also research assistant professor of epidemiology at SPH. The above is a verbatim copy of the press release by Boston University Medical Campus Full text: http://www.jsad.com/doi/abs/10.15288/jsad.2016.77.723 The article has been included in our online databases of scientific publications: http://eucam.info/2016/09/12/naimi-et-al-2016/
The workshop “From evidence to advocacy. Child rights based tools for protecting kids from alcohol marketing”, organised by IOGT International, took place in Bratislava on 2 September 2016. The workshop consisted of three presentations as well as case studies and gathered participants from several NGOs in Europe, such as EUCAM, IOGT Poland, IOGT Iceland, SHAAP and Active. Dominique Lenssen (researcher at EUCAM) participated on behalf of EUCAM. Speakers included Kristina Sperkova (President IOGT International), Dr. Lars Møller (WHO Europe), Prof. Gerard Hastings (Stirling University, Schotland) and Prof. Amandine Garde (Law and NCD Unit, University of Liverpool). Participants gained knowledge on alcohol harm in Europe, evidence of the effects of alcohol marketing targeting kids as well as alcohol marketing regulations and children’s rights. The importance of a human rights approach towards NCD prevention has been stressed, in which the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) plays a central role. By conducting group exercises, participants learned to produce evidence-based and legal arguments that can be used in the development of and advocacy for national policies, as well as the importance of the use of legal tools such as the CRC and existing case law. In general, it was an interesting meeting during which fruitful discussions took place.
Since 29 August 2016, EUCAM has a new employee: Dominique Lenssen. Dominique will be working as a researcher for EUCAM. As researcher, Dominique will be involved with the collection, exchange and promotion of knowledge and experience about alcohol marketing in Europe. Furthermore, she will be responsible for updating the EUCAM website (www.eucam.info). Her work will also focus on the EUCAM monitoring application for smart phones. NGO’s in whole Europe are invited to make use of this application if they have plans to monitor alcohol marketing practices. If you have any questions or remarks, please sent an e-mail to firstname.lastname@example.org
More than 3600 Swedes have signed a petition protesting against alcoholic popsicles that were co-created by a former member of Swedish House Mafia. The petition, launched my Swedish temperance movement IOGT-NTO, demands that N1CE frozen cocktails should be removed from grocery stores in the country. One of the creators of the product is Sebastian Ingrosso, a DJ and producer who was a member of electronic music supergroup Swedish House Mafia until they disbanded in 2013. He is also a co-founder of the N1CE company. The alcoholic ice-lollies containing five percent alcohol can be purchased in normal supermarkets, whereas virtually all other alcohol can only be obtained in the state monopoly Systembolagets. This is why temperance movement IOGT-NTO has come into action against the popsicles: “It’s a way to market alcohol in many locations, and to make alcohol more clearly the norm by getting it in different contexts. Especially with regards to popsicles, which are something you associate with children,” IOGT-NTO director Leif Arne Gustavsson argued to SVT News. Read on at thelocal.se
The European Association for the Study of the Liver (EASL) is seeking a ban on the advertising of certain foods, beverages and alcohol between 7am and 11pm in every EU country, in a bid to protect minors. The European Commission recently published its proposal to revise the Audiovisual Media Services Directive (AVMSD). The AVMSD deals, amongst others, with advertising of unhealthy foods to children as well as alcohol advertising. Two rapporteurs have been appointed to take the proposal through the European Parliament. They asked for comments on the Commission proposal from a wide range of stakeholders. EASL sent in a submission on alcohol and food advertising. While EASL believes that, in certain respects, the Commission’s proposal for amending the Audio Visual Media Services Directive represents an improvement on the current Directive, they also see several important respects in which it can be strengthened. In their submission EASL refers to numerous studies which show that exposure to marketing of alcohol and foods high in salt, sugar and saturated fats, increases consumption of these products in all segments of the population, including children. The EASL recommendations aim to strengthen the existing Directive which states that advertising must not cause “physical or moral detriment to minors”. The EASL is also requesting amendments to the Directive in relation to product placement and sponsorship. The rapporteurs are scheduled to publish their draft report in early September. Other Parliamentary committees will then have the opportunity to submit amendments. Read EASL’s submission here. Source: EASL.EU 07/19/16 maismaismedicina 07/22/16
NGOs issue complaint to French government: Carlsberg and UEFA are deliberately circumventing French law during EURO 2016 and in doing so they are exposing alcohol ads to millions of children. Aggressive alcohol marketing reaches 1.9 billion people Carlsberg is one of ten official sponsors of the month-long UEFA EURO 2016, the quadrennial men's football championship of Europe organized by The Union of European Football Associations (UEFA). EURO 2012 drew a cumulative audience of over 1.9 billion people and is one of the world’s most popular sporting events. Civil society organizations have been tracking the alcohol marketing activities of Carlsberg over the course of the EUROs. “We are not surprised but extremely concerned. Carlsberg and UEFA have engaged in aggressive alcohol promotions throughout the whole tournament. Carlsberg is visible nearly every minute during broadcasts of the EURO 2016 games,” says Kristina Sperkova, President of IOGT International. French law bypassed "It is unacceptable to see that this is going on, when alcohol advertising in sports is actually banned by law in France,” says Wim van Dalen, President of the European Centre for Monitoring Alcohol Marketing (EUCAM). The ‘Loi Evin’, as the French alcohol marketing regulation is known, bans any link between alcohol marketing and sports as well as between alcohol marketing and youth. Carlsberg and UEFA are apparently able to circumvent this by replacing the brand name on pitch-side adverts with one of their iconic slogans, written in the easily-recognizable Carlsberg font. Alcohol ads seen almost once per minute New research carried out by Alcohol Concern during the group stages of EURO 2016 has found that people watching England’s and Wales’ games saw alcohol marketing almost once a minute during play. It shows that during TV broadcasts of the two countries’ group games, pitch-side adverts for Carlsberg appeared 392 times – an average of 78.4 per game, or once every 72 seconds. More than 50 unethical practices found Additionally, the campaign Big Alcohol Exposed has collected more than 50 case examples of unethical practices by Carlsberg and UEFA. The cases include: -Pervasive in game, pitch-side ads
- Pre- and after-game ads during interviews and press conferences
- Merchandise for fans
- Associations with special moments of each game like best goal and man of the match
- The UEFA EURO 2016 smartphone app
- Social media (Twitter) activities by Carlsberg and UEFA.
ENDNotes for the editors: UEFA – Carslberg sponsorship deal For UEFA, the sponsorship deal with the world’s 4th largest beer producer  is highly lucrative. Carlsberg is said to have paid about €40 million to be exclusive beer sponsor of EURO 2016. But the Danish brewer is spending even more for promoting its brand during the tournament: Carlsberg is investing as much as €80 million on marketing for the championship . The French alcohol marketing regulation The ‘Loi Evin’, as the French alcohol marketing regulation is known, bans any link between alcohol marketing and sports as well as between alcohol marketing and youth .
- No advertising should be targeted at young people;
- No advertising is allowed on television or in cinemas;
- No sponsorship of cultural or sport events is permitted.
- Advertising in the form of product information is allowed.
The above presentation by professor Amandine Garde was originally given on May 31st in the European Parliament at our seminar 'How do we protect minors from exposure of alcohol marketing?' and describes the practical possibilities of further restrictions on alcohol marketing in the AVMSD, as well as the legal need for such restrictions.
EUCAM is constantly looking out for interesting scientific publications on the subject of alcohol marketing in the broadest sense. A number of articles that have been published over the last six months prompted us to disseminate their conclusions in news articles. However, there has been such a great number of important studies that we have decided to round them up in a single overview of the recent literature. Systematic Reviews Since systematic reviews are regarded as the "Gold Standard" of evidence in the literature, this article will start with 3 systematic reviews. Early this year Addiction published ‘How does the alcohol industry attempt to influence marketing regulations? A systematic review.’ In this review Emily Savell (University of Bath & UK Centre for Tobacco and Alcohol Studies) and co-authors reviewed seventeen papers and concluded that:
“The industry's opposition to marketing regulation centres on claims that the industry is responsible and that self-regulation is effective. There are considerable commonalities between tobacco and alcohol industry political activity, with differences due potentially to differences in policy contexts and perceived industry legitimacy.”Earlier this month BMC Public Health published ‘Immediate effects of alcohol marketing communications and media portrayals on consumption and cognition: a systematic review and meta-analysis of experimental studies.’ Lead authors Kaidy Stautz and Kyle G. Brown of the University of Cambridge’s Behaviour and Health Research Unit searched for experimental studies assessing immediate effects of exposure to alcohol marketing communications on objective alcohol consumption (primary outcome), explicit or implicit alcohol-related cognitions, or selection without purchasing (secondary outcomes). They identified 24 studies which met the inclusion criteria. Their meta-analysis of 758 participants (all students) shows that viewing alcohol advertisements (but not alcohol portrayals) may increase immediate alcohol consumption by small amounts, equivalent to between 0.39 and 2.67 alcohol units for males and between 0.25 and 1.69 units for females. The authors remark:
“Whilst the evidence from experimental studies is currently limited, the results of this systematic review do, in our view, lend some qualified support to the public health case for restrictions, bans, or other policies that would reduce exposure to alcohol advertising on visual broadcast media to reduce alcohol consumption. Importantly, whilst the individual-level immediate effects found here may be small, such effects could, if sustained in response to overall reduced exposure over time, have a meaningful impact on consumption at the population level.”Just as this systematic review was published a new experimental study appeared, which may have also met the inclusion criteria. In ‘Saw It on Facebook, Drank It at the Bar! Effects of Exposure to Facebook Alcohol Ads on Alcohol-Related Behaviors,’ Saleem Alhabasha and his colleagues from Michigan State University, through an experimental setting show the effects of exposure to Facebook alcohol advertisements on intentions to consume alcohol and alcohol-related behaviours. 121 participants were exposed to ads on Facebook, one group viewing ads for a brand of beer, the other a brand of bottled water. At the end of the study, as an incentive for taking part, the participants were offered one of two gift cards – one for a bar, the other for a coffee shop. Of those who saw the beer ad, 73 percent chose the bar card. Of those who saw the water ad, only about 55 percent chose the bar card.
“What this tells us is there is an effect and it can be attributed to the sheer exposure to these messages,” said Alhabasha in a press release accompanying the publication.Sports Sponsorship Another systematic review considered sports sponsorship. Alcohol and Alcoholism published ‘Association Between Alcohol Sports Sponsorship and Consumption: A Systematic Review.’ In which the Institute for Alcohol Studies’ Kathryn Brown included seven studies on the impact of exposure to alcohol sports sponsorship and outcomes relating to alcohol consumption. The review presents data on 12,760 participants from Australia, New Zealand, the UK, Germany, Italy, Netherlands and Poland. All studies report positive associations between exposure to alcohol sports sponsorship and self-reported alcohol consumption. Brown concludes:
“The relationship between alcohol sports sponsorship and increased drinking amongst schoolchildren will concern policymakers. Further research into the effectiveness of restrictions on alcohol sports sponsorship in reducing harmful drinking is required.”Addiction published online a new study from the dataset that the team of Thomas Babor compiled from monitoring international broadcasts of the 2014 FIFA World Cup tournament. In ‘Alcohol Marketing in the Americas and Spain during the 2014 FIFA World Cup Tournament,’ lead author Jonathan K. Noel performed a qualitative analysis of 87 alcohol advertisements from 20 world cup matches. This analysis found that 86.2% of all unique alcohol advertisements contained at least 1 violation of the industry’s self-regulation codes, with violation rates ranging from 72.7% (Mexico) to 100% (Brazil). Countries with the least restrictive marketing policies had a higher prevalence of violations in guidelines designed to protect minors. Spotlight on online alcohol advertising Our EUCAM colleague Avalon de Bruijn published a study on the effects of online exposure to alcohol advertising in Alcohol and Alcoholism. In ‘Exposure to Online Alcohol Marketing and Adolescents’ Drinking: A Cross-sectional Study in Four European Countries, ’ de Bruijn and her colleagues surveyed more than 9,000 students around the age of 14 at schools in Germany, Italy, the Netherlands and Poland. The study found that online alcohol marketing exposure was found to be related to the odds of starting to drink and the odds of binge drinking in the past 30 days. This study is the first that has examined the impact of different levels of frequency of exposure to (online) alcohol marketing practices and the first cross-country study that examined the impact of alcohol advertising on adolescents’ drinking behaviour.
The author notes that: “…alcohol marketing on the Internet can be seen as a serious but avoidable danger to adolescents’ health. The consistency of this effect and the size of the effect among the four European countries seriously raise the demand for legal restrictions of the volume of alcohol marketing in online media in European countries.”The Journal of Substance Use published ‘Potential youth exposure to alcohol advertising on the internet: a study of internet versions of popular television programs.’ A quantitative study in which Michael Siegel and his co-authors had three underage coders (ages 10, 13, and 18) analyse web sites of television networks which stream television programs popular among youth to assess the volume of alcohol advertising. The study found that alcohol advertisements are highly prevalent on these programs, with nine of the 12 shows carrying alcohol ads, and six programs averaging at least one alcohol advertisement per episode. Novel method of measuring TOTAL exposure ‘Alcohol Advertising Exposure Among Middle School–Age Youth: An Assessment Across All Media and Venues.’ Is a particularly interesting American exposure study published in the Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs. Rebecca Collins and her colleagues of the Rand Corporation outfitted 589 children between the ages of 11-14 with a handheld computer to log their exposure to all kinds of alcohol advertising for 14 days straight. This makes it the first study to estimate total amount of alcohol advertising exposure among youth. The study found that African American and Hispanic youth are exposed to an average of 4.1 and 3.4 advertisements per day, respectively, nearly two times as many as non-Hispanic White youth. Girls were exposed to 30% more advertisements than boys. Most exposures were to outdoor advertisements, with television advertisements a close second.
England’s northwest coast town Blackpool is considering locally banning alcohol advertising throughout the town within the next two years, to reduce the town's drink-related crime and health problems. Blackpool’s new Alcohol Strategy specifically asks councillors to consider imposing the ban near pubs, shops and off licences. This new ban will thus expand the current alcohol advertising ban Blackpool already has in place for all council properties. The plan for a local alcohol advertising ban was first drafted three years ago, but it wasn’t until Blackpool’s new Alcohol Strategy that a timetable has been set for a possible by-law. According to the BBC, the Alcohol Strategy notes that drink-related death rates for both men and women in the coastal resort are "significantly higher" than the national average. Blackpool also has the highest rate of hospital admissions due to alcohol consumption of any local authority in England. The local ban on alcohol advertising is just one part of the Alcohol Strategy. See also: UK: BLACKPOOL COUNCIL WANTS TO END OUTDOOR ALCOHOL ADS 11/30/13 Source: BBC 06/07/16