Authors: Jonathan K. Noel, Thomas F. Babor, Katherine Robaina, Melissa Feulner, Alan Vendrame, Maristela Monteiro
Title: Alcohol marketing in the Americas and Spain during the 2014 FIFA World Cup Tournament
Journal: Addiction, 2016, 10.1111/add.13487
Aims: To identify the nature of visual alcohol references in alcohol advertisements during televised broadcasts of the 2014 FIFA World Cup Tournament matches and to evaluate cross-national differences according to alcohol marketing policy restrictiveness.
Design: A review was conducted of recent legal documents and court cases, as well as the activities of alcoholic beverage industries.
Setting: Television broadcasts of the 2014 FIFA World Cup in Argentina, Brazil, Canada, Finland, France, Mexico, Spain and the United States.
Cases: Eighty-seven alcohol advertisements; 20 matches.
Measurements: Quantitative rating scales, combined with the Delphi rating technique, were used to determine compliance of the alcohol advertisements with the International Alliance for Responsible Drinking’s (IARD) Guiding Principles. Recordings of five matches from four countries were also used to identify the number of in- and out-of-game alcohol brand appearances.
Results: A total of 86.2% of all unique alcohol advertisements contained at least one violation of IARD’s Guiding Principles, with violation rates ranging from 72.7% (Mexico) to 100% (Brazil). Countries with the least restrictive marketing policies had a higher prevalence of violations in guidelines designed to protect minors. There were 2.76 in-game alcohol brand appearances and 0.83 out-of-game alcohol brand appearances per minute. Brand appearances did not differ across countries or according to a country’s marketing policy restrictiveness.
Conclusion: Self-regulation and statutory policies were ineffective at limiting alcohol advertising during the 2014 FIFA World Cup Tournament television broadcasts. Most advertisements contained content that violated the self-regulation codes, and there were high levels of within-broadcast brand appearances.