Authors: Lauri B. Fisher, Isa Williams, Bryn Austin, Carlos A. Camargo, Graham A. Colditz Title: Predictors of Initiation of Alcohol Use Among US Adolescents. Findings From a Prospective Cohort Study. Journal: Arch Pedriatr Adolesc Med, 2007, 161, 959-966. Abstract Objective: Impact of possession of or willing to use alcohol promotional items on initiation of alcohol use and binge drinking (5 or more alcohol drinks over a few hours at least once over past year). Design: Prospective study (longitudinal study) Setting and Participants: GUTS participants from the Nurses' Health Study II were recruited in the US. 16,882 youngsters between 9 and 14 were recruited in 1996; 11,834 completed follow-up in 1998 and 1999. Sample comprised 5511 non-drinkers who completed alcohol questions in 1998 and 1999. The 995 youngsters were selected in the statistical analysis who initiated alcohol use since the baseline. Methods: Multivariate logistic regression analyses are performed to calculate ods ratios for Alcohol Initiation and Binge Drinking during the 12-month follow-up. Findings: 611/3283 girls (19%) and 384/2228 boys (17%) initiated alcohol use. The odds ratio of alcohol initiation during the 12 month period was 1.74 (1.37-2.19) for girls and 1.78 (1.36-2.33) for boys for those who owned or were willing to use an alcohol promotion item compared with those who did or would not. 149/611 drinking girls (24%) and 112/384 drinking boys (29%) engaged in binge drinking. The odds ratio of binge drinking amongst drinkers was 1.79 (1.16-2.77) for girls for those who owned or were willing to use an alcohol promotion item compared with those who did or would not. There was no difference in chance of binge drinking among boys for those who owned or were willing to use an alcohol promotion item compared with those who did or would not (OR=0.87 (95% CI .51-1.48), p>.09). Conclusions Authors: According to the authors the results suggest that more restriction on alcohol advertisement by the federal US government is necessary. Remarks of EUCAM: The study is not focused on the effects of alcohol marketing in particular. Other types of alcohol advertisement, besides talking about alcohol advertisement or promotional items, are not included. Nevertheless, the study provides an indication of the importance of promotional items on drinking behaviour of young people.